168 4 bit CPU
168 : 4 bit CPU
Image path is broken
How it works
It has a 4-bit accumulator, a 7-bit PC, 2 7-bit index registers and a carry bit.
The main limitations are the 6/8-bit bus - it’s designed to run with an external SRAM and a 7-bit address latch, code is loaded externally.
There are 25 instructions. each 2 or 3 nibbles:
- 0 V: add a, V(x/y) - sets C - 1 V: sub a, V(x/y) - sets C - 2 V: or a, V(x/y) - 3 V: and a, V(x/y) - 4 V: xor a, V(x/y) - 5 V: mov a, V(x/y) - 6 V: movd a, V(x/y) - 7 0: swap x, y - 7 1: add a, c - 7 2: mov x.l, a - 7 3: ret - 7 4: add y, a - 7 5: add x, a - 7 6: add y, #1 - 7 6: add x, #1 - 8 V: mov a, #V - 9 V: add a, #V - a V: movd V(x/y), a - b V: mov V(x/y), a - c H L: mov x, #hl - d H L: jne a/c, hl if H the test c otherwise test a - e H L: jeq a/c, hl if H the test c otherwise test a - f H L: jmp/call hl if H call else jmp
Memory is 128/256 (128 unified or 128xcode+128xdata) 4-bit nibbles, references are a 3 bit (8 nibble) offset from the X or Y index registers - the general idea is that the Y register points to an 8 register scratch pad block (a bit like an 8051) but can also be repurposed for copies when required. There is an on-chip SRAM block for data access only (addressed with the MSB of the data address) - mostly just to soak up any additional gates.
There is also a 4-deep hardware call stack.
How to test
needs a 7-bit external address latch and SRAM